Papers for the month of December 2018

Chengcheng Huang, Doug Ruff, Ryan Pyle, Robert Rosenbaum, Marlene Cohen

"Circuit Models of Low-Dimensional Shared Variability in Cortical Networks"
Neuron, 101:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The shared trial-to-trial variability of cortical networks is low dimensional, meaning neurons fluctuate their activity in a coordinated fashion. We present modelling work that identifies the circuit requirements for recurrently coupled networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons to internally produce such low dimensional population fluctuations.

James Eles, TK Kozai, Alberto Vazquez

"Meningeal inflammatory response and fibrous tissue remodeling around intracortical implants: An in vivo two-photon imaging study"
Biomaterials, 195:111-123

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Meningeal inflammation and encapsulation of neural electrode arrays is a leading cause of device failure, yet little is known about how it develops over time or what triggers it. This work characterizes the dynamic changes of meningeal inflammatory cells and collagen-I in order to understand the meningeal tissue response to neural electrode implantation. We use in vivo two-photon microscopy of CX3CR1-GFP mice over the first month after electrode implantation to quantify changes in inflammatory cell behavior as well as meningeal collagen-I remodeling. We define a migratory window during the first day after electrode implantation hallmarked by robust inflammatory cell migration along electrodes in the meninges as well as cell trafficking through meningeal venules. This migratory window attenuates by 2 days post-implant, but over the next month, the meningeal collagen-I remodels to conform to the surface of the electrode and thickens. This work shows that there are distinct time courses for initial meningeal inflammatory cell infiltration and meningeal collagen-I remodeling. This may indicate a therapeutic window early after implantation for modulation and mitigation of meningeal inflammation.

Michelson NJ, Eles JR, Vazquez AL, Ludwig KA, Kozai TDY

"Calcium activation of cortical neurons by continuous electrical stimulation: Frequency-dependence, temporal fidelity and activation density"
Journal of Neuroscience Research, 0:1-19

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This work examines the effects of continuous microstimulation on the local population of neurons surrounding the implanted electrode. Stimulation was found to elicit spatiotemporal neuronal responses in a frequency-dependent manner suggesting frequency may be an important consideration for applications in research or therapy.

Stocking KC, Vazquez AL, Kozai TDY

"Intracortical neural stimulation with untethered, ultrasmall carbon fiber electrodes mediated by the photoelectric effect."
IEEE TBME, 0:1-1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Neural stimulation with tethered, electrically activated probes is damaging to neural tissue and lacks good spatial selectivity and stable chronic performance. Photoelectric stimulation is precise and avoids the need for a potentially destructive tether, making it a promising alternative to electrical stimulation.

Camacho, M.C., Karim, H.T.

"Neural architecture supporting active emotion processing in children: A multivariate approach"
NeuroImage, 188:171

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We used multivariate support vector machines to classify adult versus child brain activity during naturalistic emotion processing in order to elucidate regions whose role in emotion processing may change across the lifespan. We found evidence for increased activation of primary sensory and associative regions of the cortex in children compared to adults, which may be indicative of a protracted development of regions needed to integrate emotional information.

Marshman, E. M., Kalender, Z. Y., Nokes-Malach, T., Singh, C.

"Female students with As have similar physics self-efficacy as male students with Cs in introductory courses: A cause for alarm?"
Physical Review Physics Education Research, 14(2):0

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This study examines the self-efficacy of male and female students with similar performance in introductory physics courses and investigates whether gender gaps in self-efficacy are persistent across different instructors and course formats. We found that female students had lower self-efficacy than male students at all performance levels in both physics 1 and physics 2. The self- efficacy gaps continued to grow throughout the introductory physics course sequence, regardless of course format and instructor. The findings suggest that female students’ self-efficacy was negatively impacted by their experiences in introductory physics courses, and this result is persistent across various instructors and course formats.

Pasquereau, B., Tremblay, L.

"Local field potentials reflect dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic activities within the primate midbrain"
Neuroscience, 0:0

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Reward-associated events influence the local fields potentials (LFPs) of the dopaminergic midbrain in a frequency-dependent manner. Dopaminergic single-unit spiking is often phase-locked to low-frequency components of the LFP (<32-Hz; i.e., delta and beta frequency bands). LFP spectral power in the same low-frequency bands covaries positively with predicted and actual reward size. LFP power at high frequencies (>33-Hz) is anticorrelated with predicted reward value. Modulation of LFP power by movement or effort (predicted or actual) is negligible in the midbrain.

Lima NCB, Guedes RLM, Almeida LGP, Cavaleiro NP, de Morais GL, Chaves AV, Howard JT, Teixeira MM, Schneider P, Santos FR, Schatz MC, Felipe MS, Miyaki CY, Aleixo A, Schneider MPC, Jarvis ED, Vasconcelos ATR, Prosdocimi F, Mello CV

"Parrot Genomes and the Evolution of Heightened Longevity and Cognition"
Current Biology, 28(24):4001 - 4008

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The genetic basis for the complex traits that characterize parrots, including extreme longevity and advanced cognition, remains unknown. Wirthlin et al. present the genome of the blue-fronted Amazon, Amazona aestiva. Comparisons with other birds and humans reveal genomic similarities, suggesting convergent mechanisms in the evolution of these traits.


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