Papers for the month of October 2018


Savya S.P, Kunkhyen T., Cheetham C.E.J.

" Low survival rate of young adult-born olfactory sensory neurons in the undamaged mouse olfactory epithelium"
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-018-9774-8:N/A

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Olfactory sensory neurons, which provide odor input to the brain, are generated throughout life. We found that in young adult mice, very few newborn neurons survive for more than 14 days, which may be due to their inability to form stable synaptic connections.


Betancur, L., Vortuba-Drzal, E.

"Socioeconomic Gaps in Science Achievement"
International Journal of STEM Education, 5(38):1-25

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (N = 9250), this study examines disparities in science achievement across elementary and middle school related to parental income and parental education separating their effects from each other and from a range of confounding factors. Additionally, it considers whether characteristics of children, families, and schools are pathways through which socioeconomic disparities emerge.


Bruett, H., Fang, X., Kamaraj, D. C., Haley, E.

"Expertise Moderates Incidentally Learned Associations Between Words and Images"
Frontiers in Psychology, 9:2085

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Individuals with expertise in a domain of knowledge demonstrate superior learning for new information in their area of expertise, relative to non-experts, but it is unclear whether expertise benefits extend to incidental associations between words and images. Findings suggest a specific effect of expertise on associative memory between words and images, but not for individual items, supporting a dissociation in how expertise modulates the human memory system for word-image pairings.


Golabchi A., Wu B., Li X., Carlisle D.L., Kozai T.D.Y., Friedlander R.M., Cui X.T.

"Melatonin improves quality and longevity of chronic neural recording"
Biomaterials, 180:225-239

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This study demonstrated the potent effect of melatonin treatment in inhibiting persistent inflammation and neuronal loss, as well as maintaining high-quality neural recording in chronic microelectrode brain implantation.


Gilmore A, Holmes CJ, Yu T, Barton AW, Beach SR, Galván A, MacKillop J, Windle M, Chen E, Miller GE, Sweet LH, & Brody GH.

"A family-focused intervention influences hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity through gains in self-regulation. "
Child Development, 0:0

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This paper examined PFC-hippocampal resting state connectivity in a randomized intervention to foster self-regulation in at-risk youth. Greater coupling was found in the intervention group (compared to controls) and this was related to fewer problems with aggression.


Michelson NJ, Kozai TDY

"Isoflurane and Ketamine Differentially Influence Spontaneous and Evoked Laminar Electrophysiology in Mouse V1"
Journal of Neurophysiology, 120:2232-2245

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We directly compared electrophysiological responses in awake and anesthetized (isoflurane or ketamine) mice. We also proposed a method for quantifying and visualizing highly variable, evoked multiunit activity. Lastly, we observed distinct oscillatory responses to stimulus onset and offset in awake and isoflurane-anesthetized mice.


Lee, Tai Sing, Ramachandran, Suchitra, Huang, Ge

"Neural Correlate of Visual Familiarity in Macaque Area V2"
Journal of Neuroscience, 38:8967

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Familiarity suppression – the tendency for neurons to respond less strongly to familiar than novel images – is well known in monkey inferotemporal cortex. Suppression has been thought to arise in inferotemporal cortex because its neurons respond selectively to large complex images and thus explicitly to encode information sufficient for identifying a particular image as familiar. No previous study has explored the possibility that familiarity suppression occurs even in early-stage visual areas where neurons are selective for simple features in confined receptive fields. We now report that neurons in area V2 exhibit familiarity suppression. This finding challenges our current understanding of information processing in V2 as well as our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie familiarity suppression.


Jeon BB, Swain AD, Good JT, Chase SM, Kuhlman SJ.

"Feature selectivity is stable in primary visual cortex across a range of spatial frequencies."
Scientific Reports, 8(1):15288

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Single neurons in the brain’s primary visual cortex can reliably detect straight lines, even though the cellular makeup of the neurons is constantly changing, according to a new study by Carnegie Mellon University neuroscientists, led by Associate Professor of Biological Sciences Sandra Kuhlman. The study’s findings, published in Scientific Reports on Oct. 16, lay the groundwork for future studies into how the sensory system reacts and adapts to changes.


Yu Byron, Snyder Adam

"Distinct population codes for attention in the absence and presence of visual stimulation"
Nature Communications, 9:4382

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Attention affects stimulus response gain, but its impact without sensory drive is less known. This study reveals that attention is coded diversely in a population and is distinct between unstimulated and stimulated contexts, providing a contrast to normalized gain models of attention.


"The critical roles of errors and individual differences in bilingual translation"
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 000:000

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Provides a critical evaluation of the Multilink model of bilingual word recognition and word translation (Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte, and Rekké, 2018). This commentary focuses on two important issues that have been examined in past research but are not incorporated into the model: the nature of errors made during translation and individual differences.


Bertholomey M.L., Stone K., Lam T.T., Bang S., Wu W., Nairn A.C., Taylor J.R., Torregrossa M.M.

"Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Amygdala Response to Adolescent Glucocorticoid Exposure Reveals G-Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 as a Target for Reducing Motivation for Alcohol"
Proteomes, 6:41

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Phosphoproteomic analysis of the amygdala of rats chronically exposed in adolescence to the stress hormone, corticosterone, revealed increased phosphorylation of serine residues on the alpha 2A adrenergic receptor. Subsequent intra-amygdala blockade of G protein receptor-coupled kinase 2 (GRK2), which mediates phosphorylation at these residues, reduced alcohol-motivated behavior by the alpha 2A receptor antagonist and pharmacological stressor, yohimbine.


Masamoto, K.

"Optical imaging and modulation of neurovascular responses"
Journal of Cererbal Blood Flow and Metabolism, AOP:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This paper describes how optical imaging technologies have been used to examine and characterize cerebral vasculature, its individual segments, and its response to systemic perturbations and local neuronal activity.

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